List of North American countries and their
→ More developed and less developed countries in
The North America is formed by
Canada, United States and Mexico. Undoubtedly,
these are large economies that have a great influence both
in America and in other parts of the world. The great world
power is found in that subcontinent, the United States .
Largest economy not only in North
America but also in the world, the United States
has a Gross Domestic Product of approximately US $ 19.39
trillion. The country influences other countries
politically, economically and culturally. Because the United
States has a very developed economy, it is a territory that
attracts people from all over the world,
who turn to it for job opportunities. One
of its main trading partners is Canada.
Already Mexico is among the countries of
North America, the least developed.
However, it is worth noting that this nation is one of the
largest economies in Latin America - a region on the
American continent that corresponds to countries that speak
the languages derived from Latin: Spanish, Portuguese and
Despite being one of the greatest powers in the region in
which it finds itself, Mexico had a
late industrialization, therefore, recent. The
country, in spite of being industrialized, is still one of
those with great income inequality,
with an abyss between the rich and the poor. Its economy is
still quite dependent on the American economy today.
Central America belongs to the American continent, which is also
formed by South America and North America.
Central America is an isthmus, which is limited to the
south by Colombia, to the north by the Yucatan peninsula in
Mexico, to the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the east by
the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean).
It covers 523,000 km2 and comprises seven
countries: Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras,
Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
There are also island countries in the Caribbean Sea:
Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominican
Republic, Granada, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Dominica,
Santa Lucia, Saint Kitts and Saint Vincent.
Central America has a mountainous relief and has one of
the regions with the highest number of active volcanoes.
The relief advances over the narrow coastal region of the
Pacific Ocean to the top of the mountains and gradually
descends to a wide region that extends along the Caribbean
Sea. The Atlantic and Pacific oceans are connected through
the Panama Canal.
Central American hydrography consists of three large
lakes: Nicaragua, Managua and Gatún.
The longest rivers in Central America flow into the
Caribbean, while the smallest flow into the Pacific Ocean.
Central America has three climatic zones distinct from
the so-called "hot land", which comprises regions from sea
level to an altitude of 910 m; the “temperate land”, which
includes regions from 915 m to 1,830 m; and the “cold land”,
which comprises regions up to approximately 3,050 m. The
Caribbean coasts have a rain regime very different from that
presented on the Pacific coast.
The slopes of the Pacific coast have a dry climate due to
the presence of constant cold air, caused by the cold
California current, which makes it impossible to absorb
water vapor, reducing the possibility of precipitation,
however, the temperate water of the Caribbean Sea allows the
air to absorb moisture, which is carried by the prevailing
Fauna and Flora
Central America has characteristics similar to South
America and North America. The Caribbean and Pacific coasts
have lowland rainforest similar to the rainforests of South
However, the vegetation has similarities with that of
North America with altitudes between 1,000 m and 1,600 m,
with pine and oak forests.
In Costa Rica, at 3,100 m, shrubs similar to those of the
Andes mountain range grow. With regard to fauna, it is more
similar to that of South America than to that of North
Most of the population of Central America is of mixed or
indigenous origin. The black or mulatto population is
predominant on the Caribbean coast. In Belize at least half
of the population is of African origin.
In general, indigenous people are less present in
southern Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.
The official language in Central America is Spanish,
except for Belize where English is spoken. Most indigenous
peoples use their own language. In the Caribbean islands, in
addition to local dialects, English and Spanish prevail.