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Oceania Health

Health conditions vary greatly across the many countries in Oceania. Infant mortality, which is a good measure of the general health of a population, ranges from 7 Hawaii in Hawaii and under 20 ‰ in New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Guam, Fiji and American Samoa to over 50 ‰ in Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu. Similarly, the average life span is only about 60 years in Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu, but over 70 years in Hawaii, New Caledonia, Guam, American Samoa, Wallis and Futuna, French Polynesia and Palau.

In the poorest countries in Oceania, the pattern of illness is characterized by deficient nutrition and infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, diarrhea, respiratory infections and intestinal worms. Outside urban areas lacking 2/3 of the population have access to safe drinking water, while 3/4 not have health safe disposal of waste water and latrine.

In other countries, diet and lifestyle have changed in the western direction. This has led to a strong increase in the incidence of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (diabetes), atherosclerosis and heart disease, as well as alcohol and drug abuse. Nauru is a scare on how particularly vulnerable populations may be exposed to Western abundance. Mainly due to obesity and excessive diet and lack of exercise, more than 70% of Naurus are severely obese and 40% have diabetes.

Incorporating radioactive iodine compounds from nuclear weapons trials has in some places increased the population's risk of thyroid disease, including cancer.

To see country facts about New Zealand, just click Countryaah.

New Zealand

New Zealand is an independent state of Oceania in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, approximately 1900 kilometers southeast of Australia. New Zealand consists of three main islands, the North Island (North Island), the South Island (South Island) and Stewart Island south of the South Island, and several hundred smaller islands.

New Zealand also manages the Tokelau Islands in the Pacific and claims the Ross Dependency in the Antarctic. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governed island communities with free association with New Zealand.

Three-quarters (2013) of New Zealand's population comes from European immigrants and their descendants. Of these, 90 percent are of British or Irish origin. The first people to settle on the land mass, the Moors, are called the indigenous people. They constitute a large minority of about 15 per cent. Kiwis are a neutral collective term for New Zealanders.

The economy is primarily related to services (63 per cent in 2013), agriculture, livestock and industry. Up to 90 per cent of the country's production of meat, fish, milk, fruit and wine is exported.

New Zealand's national anthem is 'God Defend New Zealand'

The landmass was named Nieuw Zeeland, in English New Zealand, from discoverer Abel Tasman after his Dutch home province, Zeeland. The Moorish name of the country, Aotearoa, is usually translated as 'the land of the long white cloud'. In 2019, a public debate began to equate Aotearoa and New Zealand as official names of the country.

New Zealand Geography and environment

The two main islands, Nordøya and Sørøya, are separated by the Cook Strait. Both islands have many mountains. In total, they have a coastline totaling 15,000 km.

New Zealand has active volcanoes and geysers. Each year there are about 20,000 earthquakes. Of these, about 200 are noticeable to humans, and some have done extensive damage.

On the North Island there are mountains in the southern half. Ruapehu, which rises 2797 meters above sea level, is the highest peak. North of this volcano lies the country's largest lake, Taupo, in an area with numerous hot springs. The north side consists of a land tongue with lowlands, hills and many small islands. Along the coast in both east, west and south there are fertile lowlands. The west side gets more rain. In the east, the possibility of farming and livestock varies depending on the rain shadow.

70 per cent of Sørøya consists of mountain chains. The most powerful is the Southern Alps, which extend along almost the entire island from northeast to southwest. Here is the highest mountain Aoraki/Mount Cook, 3754 meters above sea level. In the mountains there are over 3000 glaciers and many narrow lakes, most over 300 meters deep. In the southwest are narrow fjords and narrow valleys with waterfalls (Fiordland). Lowlands are found especially along the east and south coasts.

Stewart Island/Rakiura has many hills and is covered by temperate rainforest. Mount Anglem/Hananui (980 meters) is the highest peak. The majority of the island is a national park . There are few roads and only one permanent town, Oban.

The climate is characterized by proximity to the western wind belt in the southern hemisphere. Migrating low pressure creates a mild climate without large temperature fluctuations. In the north the vegetation is subtropical and in the south temperate, but with little difference between summer and winter temperatures in both the south and the north. Due to the high mountain ranges in the west, there are sometimes extreme differences in the annual rainfall between the west and the east.

Due to the country's long-standing isolation from the rest of the world, the flora and fauna are unique. Of the approximately 2,300 vascular plants, 82 percent are found in New Zealand alone. On the North Island there are forests of kaurifuru and on Sørøya forests of southern beech, with lush endemic rainforest west of the Southern Alps. Wooden ferns and ferns are also numerous.

Harvesting in the 1800s and early 1900s has resulted in 80 percent of the original forest having disappeared. The remaining forest is currently strictly protected by law and is monitored by the Department of Conservation (DOC).

Three bat species, seals and whales are the only native mammals; all other mammals on the islands are introduced. Of 53 species of mammals are about ten wild. The Maori introduced the dog and rat. They also hunted birds.

Many of the country's native bird species cannot fly, as there were no terrestrial mammals in New Zealand for an estimated 60 million years. More than 20 species of avian large moose birds have been exterminated. Two owls, a hawk and a falcon make up what remains of the original bird of prey.

Otherwise, there are native parrots such as kea and owl parrot (kakapo). Kivi (five species) is New Zealand's national bird. All endangered endemic endangered avian species are protected by nature and are actively monitored by the Department of Conservation (DOC).

New Zealand has no snakes, but a few endemic lizards including two species of tuatara (broøgler). Europeans introduced black swan, cane, catfish and grayling as well as two other rat species, goat, pig, rabbit, cat, cattle, cattle, llama and sheep. Furthermore, snow mice, noise tax and scrotum rats were introduced for the fur. American moose, nest and European deer were introduced in recent times for hunting purposes. There are no kangaroos, but wallabies have been released near Christchurch. These and the crabs are the only mammals found in both Australia and New Zealand.

In the sea, there are plenty of animal species, including sharks, penguins, killer whales, seals and sea lions. Trout and salmon are exposed in lakes and streams. In addition, salmon is grown in both aquaculture and freshwater plants. Besides marine and aquaculture, is ø sters, scallops and green lip mussel important export products.

New Zealand People and society

About 74 per cent of the population is of European, mainly British, descent. 15 percent are Maori, while Asians make up 12 percent and non-Maori Pacific Islanders seven percent. The figures are from the 2013 census where people could indicate more ethnicities, which is why the total of the percentages is higher than 100. About 80 percent of the population lives in cities and urban areas. Three-quarters of the country's population lives on the North Island. Wellington is the capital, but Auckland is the largest city.

The population composition of the big cities has a more multicultural character. 39 per cent of Auckland's inhabitants are born outside New Zealand and only 59 per cent of Auckland's inhabitants are of European descent (2016).

50 percent of the population are Christian, although only ten percent state that they regularly visit a church. 40 percent are without religious affiliation. Religious minorities are mainly Hindus and Buddhists.

96.1 percent of the population speak English, 3.7 percent Maori and 2.2 percent Samoan.

Life expectancy at birth is 83.4 years for women and 79.9 years for men (2016).

New Zealand State and politics

New Zealand is a monarchy with Queen Elizabeth 2 as head of state, represented by a Governor General. The country has a parliamentary system of government. The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives. The house has 120 members elected for three years. From these, a government is appointed.

New Zealand is divided into eleven regions and one territory in addition to the freely affiliated states and a number of uninhabited islands. There are 67 territorial authorities ("municipalities") with varying relations with the regions. New Zealand is among the few countries in the world where the boundaries of the different levels of administration do not match.

New Zealand is a member of, inter alia the United Nations, Commonwealth, World Trade Organization, OECD, APEC, Pacific Islands Forum and ANZUS.

Military service is voluntary. The country has army, navy and air force.

New Zealand History

New Zealand is one of the last large land masses inhabited by humans. Eastern Polynesians immigrated between 1250 and 1300 according to our times (possibly) and developed Maori culture.

The Dutchman Abel Tasman was probably the first European to visit the archipelago, in 1642. He named it New Zealand. In 1769-1770 James Cook surveyed almost the entire coast and then recommended the archipelago to the United Kingdom for possible settlement.

At the end of the 18th century, traders, whales and sealers visited the archipelago from Britain and Norway, among others, without settling. British missionaries settled among the Moors as the only immigrants from the early 1800s to about 1830.

From 1830 settlers began to flow towards New Zealand, initially without the permission of neither the Maoris nor the British crown. Contradictions arose between immigrants and the natives; Between 1801 and 1840, 30,000 to 40,000 Maoris were killed in more than 600 battles. In addition contributed introduced diseases to decrease in the Maori population simultaneously with the colonists put under his Maori land for sheep farming.

In 1840 New Zealand became a British colony; from 1852 with his own government. New Zealand became a pioneering country in terms of democratization and social policy: men gained universal suffrage in 1889, women in 1893 and age bracket for anyone over 65 were introduced in 1899. New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907. 40 hours working week was introduced in 1936.

New Zealand participated in the first and second world war with large forces on the allied side. The Americans created temporary military bases in the country.

In 1984, New Zealand declared the South Pacific a nuclear-free zone and the United States declared its defense obligations to the country.

Since the 1970s, the activism of the indigenous people, including in connection with land control, has increased.

An agreement with Australia on the gradual introduction of free trade came into full force in 1995. In 2008, New Zealand became the first Western country to enter into a free trade agreement with China.

New Zealand Economy and business

Agriculture is very important to New Zealand's economy, but still accounts for less than ten percent of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). The main emphasis is on animal husbandry, and half of the agricultural land is grazing land. New Zealand is the world's largest exporter of sheep and lamb meat and wool, accounting for about 40 percent of world trade in these products. The country is also a major producer of butter and other dairy products.

The number of sheep is declining, with increasing emphasis on milk production. The most important agricultural products are barley, wheat, peas and fruits (kiwi, apple, pear). New Zealand is a major exporter of wine.

Forestry is important. Over 20 per cent of the area is forest covered, but felling of native native forest is currently illegal. Almost all harvesting is therefore now taking place in planted forest.

Fishing is operated within the world's fourth largest economic zone. 90 percent of the catch value is exported. Aquaculture is operated with the production of oysters, mussels and salmon. Salmon farming is also operated in freshwater plants.

Coal is extracted on Sørøya and there is operation on smaller metal and petroleum deposits. There is ample supply of hydropower and geothermal heat, which together with wind power cover 82 percent of the country's electricity needs.

The industry includes in particular the processing of agricultural products and the production of consumer goods for the domestic market. New Zealand is one of the world's leading manufacturers of recreational craft.

New Zealand's main trading partners are China, Australia, the United States and Japan.

With the country's clean and beautiful nature, tourism plays a major and increasing role (6.1 per cent of GDP in 2013).

New Zealand Knowledge and culture

Schooling is mandatory for all children aged 6-16, but almost all children start school when they reach the age of five. An increasing number of schools are bilingual (English and Maori). 99 percent of the adult population can read and write. There are eight universities and many colleges.

New Zealand has 23 daily newspapers (2018) and many weekly newspapers. In 1988, the state broadcaster was split into Radio New Zealand and Television New Zealand. There are many local radio stations and television channels.

The earliest poems were Maori poems and oral narratives. Some of these were translated into English by missionaries. New Zealand literature in English was produced by emigrant writers from the 1860s. Only from the 1890s was the literature written by writers born in the country.

Novel art was strongly developed in the 20th century. Central names are Katherine Mansfield and Frank Sargeson. Of the lyricists after the Second World War are mentioned Janet Frame, Bill Manhire and Hone Tuwhare, the first Moorish lyricist who wrote in English.

Since the 1980s, there have been an increasing number of poets of Moorish and Polynesian descent, including Alan Duff, Witi Ihimaera and Patricia Grace. Maurice Gee and Lloyd Jones are renowned novelists and Roger Hall a significant playwright.

The Maoris are known for wood carving and tattoo art. Key sculptors in the 1940s and 1950s were Alison Duff and Molly Macalister, and in the 1960s Paul Beadle and Greer Twiss. Prominent painters of the 20th century were Robert Nettleton Field, Colin McCahon, Christopher Perkins and Mountford Tosswill Wollaston, among others. Of central younger painters, Julia Morison, Paratene Matchitt and Ruth Watson can be mentioned.

Maori vocal music is an important part of culture. In connection with guest visits and funerals, the group unanimously sings by a leader. As entertainment, the Maoris developed kapa haka, a kind of dance theater with multi-voice singing. Immigrants brought European music traditions with them. The country's most famous composer is Douglas Lilburn (1915–2001).

New Zealand's first topical films were produced in 1898. Documentary films were unmatched until 1970. The feature film "Once Were Warriors" (1994), based on Alan Duff's novel of the same name, received a lot of international attention. Piano (1993) by director Jane Campion won the main prize at the Cannes Film Festival. Peter Jackson got a big name with the feature films The Lord of the Rings (2001–2003) and The Hobbit (2012–2014).

New Zealand's most popular sports are rugby and cricket. Sailing is another national sport.

Countries in Oceania
  1. Australia
  2. Fiji
  3. Kiribati
  4. Marshall Islands
  5. Micronesia
  6. Nauru
  7. New Zealand
  8. Palau
  9. Papua New Guinea
  10. Samoa
  11. Solomon Islands
  12. Tonga
  13. Tuvalu
  14. Vanuatu

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