Political Consolidation Efforts
Overall (until 1999/2000) the successful implementation of the military provisions of the Dayton Agreement was offset by deficits in the implementation of civil provisions in the entities and in the state as a result of the persisting ethnic tensions. These included Disarmament, return of refugees and exchange of territory. Only the reunification of Sarajevo (March 19, 1996) and Mostar (local elections, June 30, 1996) and the mutual recognition of the former warring parties (which took place at the end of September 1996) succeeded to some extent. Various follow-up conferences decided, inter alia. massive international aid in reconstruction. The High Representative of the UN was responsible for compliance with the Dayton Peace Treaty in the civilian sector and at the same time the organizer and coordinator of international aid. which is appointed by the so-called “Peace Implementation Council” (made up of representatives from more than 50 states and organizations) and is solely accountable to it. This office, whose powers – due to the lack of effectiveness of the hoped-for integrative processes – were considerably expanded in 1997, initially exercised C. Educates, from 1997 Carlos Westendorp [* 1937], from July 1999 Wolfgang Petritsch [* 1947]; He was followed at the end of May 2002 by Jeremy John Durham [“Paddy”] Ashdown [* 1941, † 2018]. In addition, investigations began to solve the mass crimes and the punishment of war criminals began (including the conviction of the former president of the RS, Biljana Plavsić [* 1930], by the war crimes tribunal in The Hague at the end of February 2003).
To the political consolidation of the Union were on 14. 9. 1996 and again on 12./13. 9. In 1998 the joint state presidency (now rotating in rotation) and the federal parliament elected, whereby the nationalist parties of the three ethnic groups were able to maintain their supremacy.
The state institutions remained inadequate; economic reconstruction and the return of refugees got off to a halt, if at all. In fact, the activities of the High Representative and his staff amounted to a “protectorate” of the UN in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The establishment of the state structures of the RS took place in the conflict between moderately valid Serbs and Serbian nationalists. The international arbitration regarding Brčko (1999) led to a confrontation between the two groups. In October 1999 the HDZ and the Croatian President F. Tudjman demanded the formation of a third, Croatian entity.
World Heritage Sites in Bosnia and Herzegovina
World Heritage Sites
- Bridge and Old Town of Mostar (2005)
- Višegrad Bridge over the Drina River (2007)
- Stećci – medieval tombstones (2016)
“Old Bridge” of Mostar
»Stari Most« – symbol of hope
On July 23, 2004 the time had come: the “Old Bridge” from Mostar over the Neretva, which was rebuilt under the leadership of UNESCO, was ceremoniously opened to the public in the presence of representatives from 60 countries. In 1993 it was destroyed by Croatian troops in the civil war – although it was completely insignificant from a military point of view.
When the Turkish builder Mimar Hajrudin had the scaffolding removed from the bridge in 1566, he had created a marvel of Ottoman architecture. The new bridge spanned the Neretva Gorge in an arc of 28.7 meters in length and 21 meters in height. Now the trade route was closed, on which the salt from the coast of that time from then on reached the Bosnian mountains faster and more safely. In the opposite direction, the Bosnian ore passed the bridge on its way to the port city of Dubrovnik.
According to educationvv, Hajrudin was able to build the two bridge towers Halebija and Tara on the hull of older towers from the time before the Turkish conquest of Mostar in 1469. This was revealed by the investigations that were necessary before the reconstruction. Since the bridge was to be rebuilt true to the original, the construction method and building materials first had to be reconstructed. Little by little, the bridge revealed the secrets of its construction history. Four carefully hand-forged iron bands made of interconnected brackets ran parallel over the arch spine. The ends of the clamps were bent at an angle of 90 degrees, widened in a dovetail shape and sunk into precisely worked niches. Brackets on the vertical joints provided additional stability. Hajrudin had the radial joints arranged in a semicircle connected with iron dowels. Arched masonry and parapets were made of light stone with an ivory-like shimmering surface. Only detailed investigations identified the material as ooid limestone, which is a regional peculiarity of the area around Mostar. The road surface, on the other hand, consisted of hard limestone. The Turkish builder had used mortar mixed with bauxite and red-brown clay to seal the roadway. The bauxite gave the mortar its red color and made the roadway stable. The Turkish builder had used mortar mixed with bauxite and red-brown clay to seal the roadway. The bauxite gave the mortar its red color and made the roadway stable. The Turkish builder had used mortar mixed with bauxite and red-brown clay to seal the roadway. The bauxite gave the mortar its red color and made the roadway stable.
For the reconstruction of the bridge, the stones that had fallen into the Neretva were recovered and carefully checked for their suitability for reinstallation. Stones that needed to be replaced were extracted from an old quarry nearby and worked using traditional techniques. This is how the new bridge was created as a true-to-original copy of the »Stari Most«. According to the will of the international community, the reconstruction should be a sign of overcoming armed conflicts between Croats and Bosniaks. Although the two banks of the Neretva are now connected again, the city is still a long way from a tension-free coexistence of the two ethnic groups. However, a tradition at the bridge is already being revived: As with the old “Stari Most”, the young men jump from the bridge into the river again to impress the girls.