Vienna, the federal capital of Austria, also its smallest federal state. The city lies on the Danube. In2019, 1.89 million people live inan area of 415 km 2.
The mayor of Vienna is also the governor of the state (since 2018 Michael Ludwig, * 1961, SPÖ). Vienna lies at the foot of the Vienna Woods, extends southeast into the Vienna Basin and extends into the western Marchfeld on the left bank of the river. It has several universities as well as numerous museums and theaters. The State Opera, the Burgtheater, the Theater in der Josefstadt, the Vienna Philharmonic and the Vienna Boys’ Choir are world-famous. Vienna is the seat of several international organizations (including OPEC).
Cityscape: The core of the city is mainly characterized by baroque buildings, although there are medieval focuses, such as the largely Gothic St. Stephen’s Cathedral (a landmark of the city, with a 136 m high south tower). The many baroque churches in Vienna include the Capuchin Church with the Capuchin Crypt (in which Maria Theresa and other Habsburg rulers are buried) and the Karlskirche. The Hofburg, whose parts from the 13th-19th centuries Century, is the former imperial castle; Its sights include the ecclesiastical and secular treasury, the Spanish riding school (Lipizzaner) and the Austrian National Library. Belvedere Palace also dates from the Baroque period. Schönbrunn Palace, built between 1669 and 1711, is a World Heritage Site. Of the many parks in the city, the Prater has, among others.
History: Vienna was built on the site of the Roman military camp Vindobona. In the 12th century it became the residence of the Austrian dukes, and in 1276 it was part of the Habsburg family. In 1529 and 1683 the Turks tried in vain to occupy Vienna by siege. In 1814/15 the city was the venue for the Congress of Vienna. In the 18th century the city was generously expanded as an imperial residence; thus began its development into a European cultural center.
Vienna is characterized primarily by dynamic development in the service sector. With € 90.1 billion, Vienna (2016) contributes 25.5% to Austria’s gross domestic product (GDP) and, with a GDP per resident of € 48,600 (2016), is at the top of the federal state comparison (Austrian average: € 40,400). The share of the service sector in gross value added (GVA; at manufacturer prices) is (2016) 85.4% and is thus well above the Austrian average of 71%. The manufacturing sector (including energy and water supply, construction), at 14.5% (2016), has a significantly lower weight than the federal average (27.7%). Agriculture and forestry are negligible with a share of GVA of (2016) 0.03% (Austria: 1.2%). At 13.0%, Vienna recorded the highest unemployment rate nationwide in 2017 (national average: 8.5%).
Energy industry: Around 1,400 energy generation plants in the Vienna catchment area produce electricity and heat. The installed capacity for electricity generation is 1,313 megawatts (MW) and for heat generation 3,443 MW.
Industry: With an employment share of (2017) 12.7% (Austria: 25.0%), industry in Vienna is of below average importance. The focus is on mechanical engineering as well as the repair and installation of machines, the manufacture of electrical equipment and data processing devices, the food and feed industry as well as the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The industrial sites are mainly in the south (Xth and XXIIIth district, also in the 3rd and XIth district) and in the northeast of the city (XXIth district).
Services: The largest shares of GVA in the tertiary sector (2016: 85.4%) come from the areas of trade, maintenance and repair of motor vehicles as well as the provision of professional, scientific, technical and other economic services, followed by real estate and housing as well as the provision of finance – and insurance services; Information and communication, public administration and social security as well as health and social services also play an important role. In contrast, the hotel and restaurant sector has a disproportionately low importance with a GVA share of 3.65% (Austria 2016: 5.39%). With 16.4 million overnight stays (2017), including 13.4 million from abroad, tourism in Vienna is still very important.
With the international airport Vienna-Schwechat, Vienna has the most important airport in Austria. With (2017) 24.4 million passengers, it carries a good four fifths of the Austrian passenger volume. Vienna has a modern subway, the network of which is constantly being expanded, an S-Bahn, an extensive tram network and is the core zone of a large transport network that extends from Sankt Pölten to the Austrian-Slovakian border. The city has a city motorway in the south and east (Südosttangente and Donauufer motorway). After the opening of the eastern borders, in order to relieve the inner-city traffic against the background of the expected higher volume of traffic with the regional ring, a ring motorway was put into operation around Vienna, which extends in the west to the Lower Austrian capital St. Pölten. Important parts of this road construction project, the north, south and west bypasses of Vienna, have already been completed; the eastern bypass of the capital is being planned. The integration of Vienna into the European high-speed rail network is in the implementation phase (including successive completion of the expansion of the western railway line and construction of the [controversial] Semmering base tunnel).