According to COUNTRYAAH, Luxembourg has a population of 613,894 (2019). Luxembourg’s European Commissioner Viviane Reding caused resurrection when she accused France of treating Roma as badly as Jews during World War II in unusually harsh terms. Reding threatened to bring France before the European Court of Justice for violations of rules on free movement. She was particularly upset that the government decried that deportations ordered were not specifically targeted at Roma, which turned out to be false. French President Nicolas Sarkozy countered that Luxembourg should receive the unwanted Roma. According to softwareleverage, Foreign Minister Jean Asselborn then accused Sarkozy of maliciously equating the Commissioner, who represents the EU, with Luxembourg. See DIGOPAUL for map and location of Luxembourg.
When Poland was divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria in 1772 and 1793, the former took over Belarus only, but when the Polish state completely disappeared in 1795, Lithuania suffered the same fate – except for the province of Suvalkai which became Prussian before it also became in 1815 taken over by the Russians. In the same year, the Vienna Congress granted the Russian emperor title of king over Poland and prince of Lithuania.
The nationalist uprising of the Poles in 1830 and 1863 also included the Lithuanians, and Russian repression was equally severe in both cases. The Czar regime regarded Lithuania as an integral part of Russia, and after 1832 therefore called it the Northwest Territory. Between 1864 and 1905 an intense Russification was carried out, texts in Lithuanian were to be printed with the Russian alphabet and the Catholic religion was pursued.
With the revolution of 1905, the peoples of the Russian Empire gained freedom of speech. In Vilnius, the publication of two newspapers began – one in Polish and one in Lithuanian. Here, a congress met with 2,000 representatives demanding the demarcation of the border between Lithuania and Russia in accordance with the will, territorial autonomy and democratic elections of a people.
During World War I, Germany occupied much of Lithuania. In 1915, the Germans allowed the conduct of a congress of 214 representatives who elected a Lithuanian council with 20 members. Furthermore, they called for the formation of a Lithuanian state within ethnic borders and with Vilnius as its capital. On February 16, 1918, the Council declared Lithuania to be independent and an end to the political dependence on other nations.
In 1919, the Soviet Red Army entered Vilnius, established a communist government, but was later forced to retire. The new Polish head of state, Josef Pilsudski, tried to restore the old Lithuanian-Polish union, but had to give up because of opposition from the Lithuanians, Ukrainians and Belarusians. In 1923, the League of Nations and the European powers recognized the separation of Poland and Lithuania.