Roman Empire, Latin Imperium Romanum. The Roman Empire was at its greatest under Trajan (98–117 AD) all countries of the wider Mediterranean area and reached on the Rhine with southwest Germany and parts of the Rhineland and on the Danube with Dacia (Romania) far into the European continent, included England (not Scotland) and submitted in East to the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. In the Roman Republic “Imperium” (authority of command) was v. a. the domain of the Romans, which has existed since the end of the 2nd century BC. Was equated with the earth. This Roman rule was subject to the Latins v. a. the states of the Apennine Peninsula federated with Rome, whose citizens did not exist until 88 BC. Were given full Roman citizenship. Until then, like the residents of the provinces, they were considered foreigners (peregrini). – In addition to the two consuls, praetors, aediles, Quaestors and censors available. In emergencies, a dictator could be appointed for six months.
Administration of the non-Italian areas: The non-Italian territories acquired after the 1st Punic War were mostly administered in the form of a province: 227 BC. BC Sicily as well as Sardinia with Corsica; 197 Hispania citerior and Hispania ulterior (Spain); 146 Macedonia, Achaea (Greece), Africa; 133 Asia (Asia Minor); 120 Gallia Narbonensis (Provence); 88 (?) Gallia Cisalpina (Northern Italy); 74 Bithynia and Pontus, Cyrene; 67 Crete, Cilicia; 64 Syria; 58 Cyprus. The province was subordinate to a Roman military commander (praetor or propaetor, later also proconsul), who also exercised the jurisdiction, and was subject to taxation by Rome. The praetor was assigned a quaestor (two in Sicily) to keep accounts. The collection of taxes was usually done by Roman tax farmers, Equites) belonged to. The states that were dependent on Rome (inside and outside a province) were legally mostly allies (Socii). They could become allies of Rome through a bilateral sworn treaty (Foedus) or (more often) through a unilateral declaration by the Senate of Rome. The autonomy of the provincial Graubünden was, however, since the 2nd century BC. BC by Roman provincial orders (Leges provinciae) more and more restricted. The allies could appeal to the Senate against attacks by the governors. 149 BC A permanent court for the investigation of extortion (Quaestio de rebus repetundis) was created, first with senators, since 123 with knights, since Sulla again with senators and since 70 BC Mixed with senators, knights and tribunes (plebeians with the highest census). The advocacy of Roman ” patrons ” for their non-Roman clients (patronage) was more effective.
The threat to the Empire from pirates and Mithridates VI. von Pontus, later also the fear of the Gauls, led to the creation of extraordinary military commands (74 for Mark Antony, 67 and 66 for Pompey, 59 for Caesar) and the formation of a large military administrative apparatus alongside the senatorial administration. Under Augustus the provinces were then divided between the Senate and Princeps. The “imperial” provinces were administered by senatorial legates (“legati pro praetore”) of praetoric or consular rank, Egypt and some smaller provinces were administered by knightly prefects (later also procurators), the senatorial provinces, as in the republic, by promagistrates (proconsuls or propreters). The troops were partly subordinate to senatorial legates, partly to knightly prefects. The princeps’ private assets in Italy and in the provinces, and in some cases also the taxes, were administered by imperial house officials, procurators (knights and freedmen). In addition to the senatorial career, a chivalrous career developed. In the 3rd century AD In the army and in the provincial administration, more and more chivalrous officials displaced the senatorial officials. The number of provinces more than doubled during the principality’s time, but was subject to strong fluctuations.
Unification of the empire: The presence of Roman troops and Roman businessmen, Roman jurisdiction, the granting of civil rights to individual provincials and the establishment of colonies brought about a gradual Romanization in the republic in the western provinces, which was caused by the civil rights policy of Caesar and Augustus, and later also of Claudius was strongly encouraged. In the east, on the other hand, Greek remained dominant. The “Hellenes” were a privileged class. The empire remained bilingual. Under Augustus the empire became a geographical unit that received a monarchical head in the divinely revered emperor. Romans and provincials were soon considered equally subjects (the term is alien to the republic) of the emperor. The growing together of the empire was further promoted by the legal policy of the emperors. The imperial law was valid in the whole empire. The habitual edict of the governor was finally codified in 130 AD. The feeling of belonging to the empire was further strengthened by the pacification policy of the emperors and by the urbanization they favored. While they founded new Greek cities in the east, in the west, in addition to the establishment of colonies under Roman or Latin law, the rise of peregrine communities (Peregrini) to Roman or Latin municipalities with extensive city law orders issued by Rome (e.g. the Lex Irnitana, a city law inscription from the Flavian period). The unification of the empire only reached a certain conclusion when all members of the empire were granted Roman citizenship by the Constitutio Antoniniana of Emperor Caracalla (212 AD).
Late Antiquity: Under Diocletian the separation into imperial and senatorial provinces was abolished and the special position of Italy (to which northern Italy belonged since 42 BC) was eliminated. The number of provinces increased through the inclusion of Italy and through partitions to about 100.They were mostly subordinate to knightly governors (praesides), but in Italy to senatorial officials (proconsuls were further appointed for Asia, Africa and Achaea), and were in 12 (later 15) Dioceses that were subordinate to the Vicarii (the largely independent representatives of the Praetorian prefects). The dioceses in turn were grouped into four (temporarily three) prefectures: Oriens, Illyricum, Italia (et Africa), Galliae. The civil administration was strictly separated from the military administration. The approximately 60 legions of the border army (Limetanei) were not subordinate to the provincial governors, but to knightly duces. Beside it created Diocletian a mobile field army (Comitatenses) and Constantine the Great a palace guard (Palatini). The Praetorian prefects were purely civil officials under Constantine, their military functions were taken over by the army masters (Magistri Militum), who in the 5th century often acted as emperors. The prefectural structure and the founding of Constantinople favored the division of the empire and the breakup of the Roman Empire (Roman history). Charlemagne and the German kings followed the tradition of Western Rome from Otto I (Holy Roman Empire, Emperor).